Chemical Properties of Acids and Bases


Now we explore the chemical properties of acids and bases. Let us get started with acids,

  • Acids change the colour of litmus from blue to red.
  • They convert the colour of Methyl Orange from Orange/Yellow to Pink.
  • Acids turn the pink colour of Phenolphthalein to colourless.
  • Acids can conduct electricity.
  • Some Acids are highly corrosive in nature which means that they corrode or rust metals.
  • Acids tend to evolve hydrogen gas whilst reacting with an active metal such as Zn, Mg, etc.
  • They produce H+ ions when mixed with water.
  • Acids lose their acidity when mixed with a base.
  • When equal amounts of acid and base are combined the process of neutralization occurs and salt and water is formed,
  • The pH value of acid is from 0-6. Learn the concept of pH value here.
  • Acids are sour in taste.
  • Acids react with carbonates and hydrogen carbonates to form a salt, water, and carbon dioxide gas.
  • Extremely active metals such as Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), etc tend to explode when combined with acids.
  • Weak Acids like Carbonic Acid doesn’t act with any metal at all.
  • Nitric Acids doesn’t usually exhibit acidic properties, it exhibits oxidizing properties instead.
  • Metals that generally react with dilute acid to form salt and hydrogen are the metals which lie above hydrogen in the metal activity series.
  • Acids form a salt, water and sulphur dioxide while reacting with sulphites and bisulphites.
  • Acids and metal sulphides form salt and hydrogen sulphide.
  • They are classified on the basis of their sources, strength, concentration, the presence of oxygen and its basicity.
  • The different types of acids are organic acids, mineral acids, strong acids, weak acids, concentrated acids, dilute acids, Oxy-acids, Hydracids, monobasic acids, dibasic acids, and tribasic acids

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